Thursday, January 25, 2018

A new view on galaxies

Based on the ether model of the Universe, there are two kinds of hydrogen available. Either we have a positive nucleus surrounded by a negatively charged particle, or we have a negative nucleus (an antiproton) surrounded by a positively charged particle (a positron). The proton is always created in pair with the antiproton. We know about the common element of hydrogen; where in the Universe do we find anti hydrogen?

Atomic matter

To make it perfectly clear what kind of matter we are talking about, we need to make a definition of the matter in question. In this case, relating to matter at the atomic level; protons and neutrons, surrounded by the lighter 'leptons' (electrons and positrons). In this study, we will disregard even the neutrons, concentrating on the element of hydrogen in its simplest form.

AM1 = Atomic matter type 1. Positive nuclei (protons) surrounded by negative satellite particles (electrons).

AM2 = Atomic matter type 2. Negative nuclei (antiprotons) surrounded by positive satellite particles (positrons).

A stable environment

In order for interstellar matter to be able to agglomerate and form larger objects such as planets, suns and galaxies, the condensing gas cloud must consist of the same type of atomic matter. If AM1 and AM2 would meet within the same area, they would continually annihilate each other, never forming larger quantities of stable matter. The waste product in the reaction of matter and anti matter immediately forms new matter, but the atomic structure is not regenerated; matter will remain in its plasma state (free nuclei and free leptons). These 'plasma clouds' are always precursors in the creation process of stable atomic matter.

Thus, the plasma cloud must initially divide itself into two different areas, where each area consist of only one type of atomic matter. We have already reached the conclusion our solar system are composed of one and the same type of atomic matter. By definition, we consider the proton to have a positive charge and the electron to have a negative charge. However, you cannot by observation only, determine the type of matter of which for example a star consist of. Even gravity will react in the same manner vis-à-vis the two types of atomic matter.

Cosmic melting pot

So if specific areas exist where plasma gets divided into atomic gas clouds; should we not be able to identify these areas? The answer is: We can and we do, but we are so familiar with the structures that we pay no particular attention to them, we don't interpret them correctly. The division of AM1 and AM2 does not happen at the solar level, it happens at the galactic level! Consequently, we have to go back to the Galaxy morphological classification of Edwin Hubble.

The structures interesting in this context are the 'barred galaxies' and in some aspect the galaxies classified as 'Theta'. What we are looking for is a structure with a central core, surrounded by two external dense areas. What is crucial in this stage is whether the central plasma core has a rotation or not. The most common condition seem to be a core contracting while rotating, other alternatives are mostly exceptions.

 Galactic pair conversion

Let's start with viewing a rotating plasma core just starting to create atomic matter in two areas on each side of the central core. This type of galaxy are defined as 'SBa' in the Hubble classification system. The central core is still pronounced and from both areas of atomic matter a spiral arm is generated, consisting of newly created stars by condensation of gas.

 In the following state, the central core has diminished (see previous image) This structure is called 'SBb'. Finally (depending on mass and rotation) the central core tends to fade away totally and we will have two completely separate galaxies.

Provided the initial rotation of the central core was strong enough, the two areas of different atomic mass will separate from each other. They have now developed into two individual galaxies. They are 'sibling galaxies' but will consist of totally different types of matter. Both will generally stay in the primal galaxy cluster.

Non rotating systems

When there is a central core with no rotation, a different structure will appear. There is a galactic core as before but the atomic matter created will form into two spherical areas opposite each other. The result is a galaxy type SB0. In this case, it is the outward directed force of the core reactions only that resist the contracting gravity force.

The central core will continue to diminish, simultaneously as the two spherical areas will continue to grow. This type of galaxy are called 'Theta', after the Greek letter Ɵ. The crucial aspect of whether the two areas will be able to separate permanently are the total mass of the system. A great gas pressure in the core reaction may achieve this.

 It is somewhat uncertain exactly how galaxies from a non rotating core will manifest. They will probably not create elliptical galaxies, which likely are the end results of spiral galaxies having lost their rotation and the distinctive shape of their spiral arms. One may assume non rotating plasma cores to end up as irregular galaxies, with no pronounced structure.

Galactic interference

Galaxies with different consisting matter will by no means explode when "colliding". Galaxies mostly consist of empty space and it is still the gravitational forces governing these processes. The solar wind of stars (primarily consisting of protons) also creates a repulsing force of the galaxy stars, counteracting collision with other heavenly bodies. You can never rule out galaxies 'adopting' parts of other galaxies, even those with differing type of matter. A newly created galaxy will however always be constituted of the same type of matter AM1 or AM2.

Rotation of stars within galaxies

 A spiral galaxy is a giant vortex. Single stars will move in rosette-like elliptical orbits. Thus a star will move in close to the galactic core and proceed out towards the edge of the galaxy. At the core position, the angle will shift by a small degree so that the ellipse in itself will move itself gradually around the galaxy core. Following the laws of Kepler, the velocity of the star will be at its highest close to the galaxy core, slowing down at the edge position. This movement of a star around the 'mother galaxy' will of course take thousands of years to accomplish (but who is in a hurry).

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